Tuesday, July 22, 2014

English for Academic Purposes or EAP is a branch of English for Special Purposes (ESP). In essence, English for Academic Purposes refers to preparing and teaching the student how to use English for the purposes of research and study within the framework of academic aims and language protocols.

The central difference between the EAP and ESP is the English for Academic Purposes focuses more on the written word and how the text should be formatted and stylized to meet academic and research purposes. Furthermore, while the English for Academic Purposes tends to focus on the written word and the relationship of language written scholarly communication, English for Specific Purposes or special tends to focus more on the acquisition of oral and verbal language and education. As one scholar; the starting point for the EAP is the student and their situation rather than the tongue; Second, many EAP courses focus more on reading and writing, while many general English language courses focusing on speaking and listening ... (English for Academic Purposes-Introduction. British Council).

In other words, the type of education as well as the subject of a course of English for academic purposes tend to be more formal, because it teaches students to become familiar with the academic procedures and genres. This contrasts with the field of education and the methodology associated with the English for Specific Purposes, which deals with language in a more colloquial sense and social rather than academic genres of expression (English for Academic Purposes-Introduction. British Council).

Therefore, we could based on this brief overview of the state that each type of language teaching we require a different educational approach with different emphases and objectives. However, it is also true that many times the teaching methods and objectives are similar in terms of teaching techniques. The central aspects of both academic and Specialty English Teaching Purpose will be discussed in the following sections.

English for Special Purposes
As noted above, English for specific purposes or special focuses more on the context of language and grammar makes learning English for academic purposes. This area of ​​English language teaching covers a wide range of topics of specialized education. These may include topics ranging from one language for computing and accounting for the use of English in the business environment and business management (Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP)). The most important aspect of English for special purposes is that English is not taught as a separate real-world student (or desires) subject; however, is part of a major subject area for students "(Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP)).

This feature of the ESP is critical to understand that refers to the fact that the ESP focuses on areas of interest and teaching the English language in different contexts. It focuses on how specific types and styles of language used in certain contexts of real life; such as in the business world.

There are also a number of important characteristics that define that usually found in this area of ​​teaching that are relevant. This includes the fact that the demographic of English for special target students often includes seniors who are taking the course to direct ESP or advance their conditions of employment and progress in a particular field. They also tend to be people who already have a fair or adequate competence in using English. These students often enter the ESP course with the intention of learning to communicate "... a set of professional skills and perform special work-related functions" (Teaching English for Specific Purposes "(ESP)).

Therefore, this form of critical practice and purpose of education is oriented needs assessment. The needs assessment for each course or subject is a central and fundamental dimension of teaching practice for ESP. for example, if the focus is on teaching business English, then the needs are related to the type of language and context of use that will most likely occur within a business or commercial environment; for example, the type and style of language use and expression would be more appropriate for business meetings and taking notes and minutes.

Objectives and teaching methods
With respect to the objectives and methods of ESP, it is important to note that this teaching is directed and focused on particular areas or tasks. As one study notes on the subject;

An ESP program, might, for example, emphasize the development of reading skills of students preparing for graduate studies in business administration; or could promote the development of oral skills in students who are studying English in order to become tourist guides. (Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP))

As noted above, before the instruction of a needs assessment is a fundamental starting point for any teaching methodology. This means that the selection of certain objectives for the course; and an assessment of other related variables such as available resources. Once a program that addresses these needs is formulated, this in turn "... leads to an evaluation of the course in terms of its effectiveness" (English for Academic Purposes: Introduction)

Essentially, ESP courses are usually a combination of specialized material related to a particular area of ​​interest and language teaching. As one critic, fighting is often interesting and motivating for students because "... the students are able to apply what they have learned in their English classes to their main field of study, be it accounting, business administration, economics, computer science or tourism "(Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP)).

This relates back to the importance of context in teaching English for Special Purposes. What usually happens is that the focus on a particular field of interest if the student meets the language learning in a defined context, which makes the learning process more targeted and enjoyable.

In order to facilitate the aims and objectives of English for Special Purposes, the teacher has to pay attention to a number of central points. First, the course design and content of the course depending on the specialty is taught should be the first priority and concern. To this end, the teacher might consider the use of external experts in the design and development of the course and the program.

Specific objectives that lean must be given by the teacher. These goals and objectives need to be transformed into "... a training program with the riming of activities" (Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP)). The teacher also has to determine the level and potential students in the ESP course design.

Possibly one of the most important tasks that the teacher must take is to create a good learning environment. In this sense, language learning becomes more effective if speaking and interacting with others. This is an important factor that teachers highlighted in this area. "Students acquire language when they have the opportunity to use the language in interaction with other speakers" (Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP)).

It is also important to note that a number of studies suggests that a good language learner is one who is willing to take risks (Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP)). In other words, this refers to a student who is willing to make mistakes in order to advance their knowledge of languages​​. Experts suggest that the teacher should create or facilitate an environment in which students feel comfortable to experiment and make mistakes in order to learn.

Some teachers believe that the specialized issues present a problem in terms of material resources. However, the Internet and access to various databases provides a rich repository of material. As one study notes on this aspect; "The Internet is a great source of authentic materials that are ideal for use in English classes ... whatever the level of the students" (English for Specific Purposes: how to teach business English using the Internet) .

English for Specific Purposes should be presented as a course that is closely linked and correlated to aspects of real-world situations. In this sense, should not be presented as a mechanical or mechanical learning form. In short, as one commentator notes, "... English should be presented in authentic contexts to make students familiar with the particular ways in which language is used in the functions that they will need to carry out in their fields specialty or occupation "(Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP)).

English for Academic Purposes
It has in the last decade has increased the interest in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). It has become "... a growing discipline within universities and other educational institutions, both in Britain and throughout the world" (Sharpling). While this is welcome, it also raises the issue of teacher training in this area of ​​expertise, especially when you consider the increase in the number of international students entering the UK Sharpling also emphasizes the fact the English for Academic Purposes is a relatively complex area requiring specialized teaching or training of tutors. "A reassessment of the question of the formation and development of EAP seems to be crucial, since the role of the EAP professional is highly complex, for which no preparation seems entirely appropriate" (Sharpling).

The overall purpose of English for academic purposes is to provide students with the tools of the ability to conduct research and study English. It includes the following areas of interest.

Pre-college, university and postgraduate teaching (from the design of materials for lectures and classroom activities).

Classroom interactions (tutorials, reviews, seminar discussions, etc..)

Genres of research (journal articles, conference papers, grant proposals, etc.)

Student writing (assignments, exams, thesis, etc..)
(English for Academic Purposes-Introduction, British Council)

An important aspect of English for academic purposes is that EAP courses are usually courses prior to the sessions. This means that the yare taken before the students' core academic courses and begin preparation for these mains. Many institutions and universities in the UK offer these courses between sessions. Moreover, "EAP courses often conducted at the institutional level where students intend to continue their primary academic year, but this is not necessarily the case "(Gillet).

One of the issues and potential problems the teacher faces this type of course are the differences in the level of education and preparation of students. Of course, the most common objective for this category of English course is to enable students to be well versed and familiar with the educational and academic environment, and the demands of the environment that will be studied.
Objectives and teaching methods
English for Academic Purposes is essentially a practical branch of ESP. It follows that many of the original rules and characters of all courses of English for Special Purposes. To reiterate, this means that "... the role of the EAP teacher is to find out what students need, what to do in their academic courses, and help them do this better in the time available" (English for Academic purposes Introduction, British Council). In other words, the teacher of a course on EAP generally first begins with a needs analysis of the requirements that the student could have to adhere. This needs analysis would by necessity have to take into account the resources available to the student.

In many ways, the demands and requirements of EAP teachers are more extensive and less obvious than in other forms of specialized teaching English. In a study of teaching EAP, Gerard Paul Sharpling succinctly describes this aspect of English for academic purposes. "The role of the EAP tutor transcends the limited context of language teaching, to engage institutional awareness and detailed knowledge of the specialized discourse" (Sharpling). In addition, EAP requires the teacher not only to ensure that students become proficient in reading and writing texts in their specific disciplines, but also actively "engage with the disciples" (Sharpling). In other words, this requires that the tutor or teacher have a thorough understanding of how the role of academic institutions in order to provide the assistance necessary and required for the student.

Therefore, a typical EAP course could include aspects such as:

Recognize the conference structure: understanding relationships in understanding relationships within their reading complex sentences markers / phrases important signposts.

Recognising implications: information not shared explicitly recognizing the Spelar of
attitude. Assessing the importance of information-selection information.

Understand intonation, the emphasis of voice, etc.
(Comprehension and Listening notetaking)

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